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A Red Emerald Bibliography


This page is intended to serve as a link resource, assisting with access to more published Red Emerald information than any other location online.

Additional articles, links and information do exist, but the following digital pathways are intended to review ground covered in this blog so far. I will periodically update this page as additional topics are discussed and new references are revealed.

Sources are listed chronologically, so a review of information is also a review of history. Commentary regarding the significance of these discoveries in their respective time periods is provided.

A photo of each publication is appended whenever available, along with an embedded hyperlink to a digital copy of the written work whenever possible.


Hillebrand, W. F. Red beryl from Utah, American Journal of Science, Volume 4, pp. 330-311 - 1905

Following Maynard Bixby's discovery of these crystals in the Thomas Mountain Range of Utah, they were sent to the National College in Washington, DC for identification. W.F. Hillebrand scientifically classified the material by a MINERAL NAME -- RED BERYL.

Eppler, Alfred. Die Schmuck - und. Edelsteine, Felix Krais Publishing, pp. 253 - 1912

Dr. Eppler published the second study of this mineral in his encyclopedic work, which described a vast number of varieties. To honor its discoverer, this German mineralogist was the first to suggest a VARIETAL NAME -- BIXBITE.

More than half a century would pass before another mineralogical study would be conducted.

The Red Emerald by John Reed Scott - Published 1914

Scott, John Reed. The Red Emerald, Washington Square Press - 1914

Appearing in print less than ten years after the discovery of a red variety in the emerald species was the first reference to a COMMON NAME -- RED EMERALD.

Nassau, Kurt & Wood, D. L. An Examination of Red Beryl from Utah, The American Mineralogist - 1968

While prospecting for uranium in 1958, Lamar Hodges stumbled upon a new red beryl deposit in the Wah-Wah Mountains where gem-quality stones could be recovered. Ten years after the discovery of facet-grade crystals for a red variety in the emerald species, Wood & Nassau published an extensive study on this variety.

A Field Guide to Topaz and Associated Minerals of Topaz Mountain, Utah by John Holfert

Holfert, John. A Field Guide to Topaz and Associated Minerals of Topaz Mountain, Utah, Self-Published - 1978

Mineralogical Record - October 1979 - Thomas Range, Wah-Wah Mountain and Vicinity by Larry Ream

Ream, Larry. Famous Mineral Localities: The Thomas Range, Wah Wah Mountains and Vicinity, Western Utah, The Mineralogical Record - October 1979

By the early 1970s, the Harris family had not only taken over the rights to the claims, but also brought small-scale mechanization to the mine site. Previous operations were recreational and limited to hand-tools. Increased production allowed the first mineral specimens to appear on the market.

Ream and Holfert conducted significant independent investigations into each of the two primary localities.

Gems & Gemology Winter 1984 - Gem Quality Red Beryl by Shigley and Foord

Shigley, James & Foord, Eugene. Gem Quality Red Beryl from the Wah-Wah Mountains, Utah, Gems & Gemology - Winter 1984

Production rose to 1,500 carats per year in the 1980s, and finally enough material had been collected to begin making detailed observations regarding the nature of these gemstones. James Shigley, the long-time Head of Research at the Gemological Institute of America, published the first comprehensive study cataloging the characteristics of gem-quality material.

Aurisicchio, Carlo Fioravanti, Giancarlo Grubessi, Odino & Mottana, A. Genesis and growth of the red beryl from Utah, Rendiconti Lincei - December 1990

Mineralogical Record - February 1991 - What's New in Minerals by Wendell Wilson

Wilson, W. E. What's New in Minerals: Denver Show 1990, Mineralogical Record - January/February 1991

Keith, Jeffrey, Christiansen, Eric & Tingey, David. Geological and Chemical Conditions of Formation of Red Beryl, Utah Geological Association, Publication 23, pp. 155-68 - 1994

As samples began to be supplied to the market in earnest, more and more mineral fans marveled and speculated on the peculiar set of circumstances which must have occurred to form these legendary crystals.

Chemex Labs. Red Beryl Sample Analysis: A9417286, Kennecott Exploration Company - June 10, 1994

Newton, Claiborne. Rb, Sr and Sr Isotope Analyses on Red Beryl, Geochron Laboratories, Sample Number: SS01885 - October 12, 1994

Rohtert, William R. Internal Memo: Experimental Technologies, Kennecott Exploration Company - May 31, 1995

Foord, Eugene. Geology, Mineralogy and Paragenesis of the Ruby Violet Red Beryl Deposit, Southern Wah-Wah Mountains, Beaver County, Utah, Kennecott Exploration Company - February 21, 1996

Rohtert, William R. Internal Memo: Synthetic Red Beryl from Russia, Kennecott Exploration Company - August 14, 1995

Rohtert, William R. Gemological Institute of America Correspondence: Donation of a 1.54 carat Synthetic Red Beryl, Kennecott Exploration Company - March 21, 1996

Rohtert, William R. Internal Memo: Historic Production from the Ruby Violet Mine, Kennecott Exploration Company - December 12, 1996

Monthly Production Summary of Actual Cut Stones. Weight Distribution Table by Size, Kennecott Exploration Company - January 13, 1997

Austin, Gordon T. Red Beryl Resource and Cost Estimates, Gemstone Mining Incorporated - January 8, 1998

Strauss, Connor. Initial Cutting Report, Gemstone Mining Incorporated - April 27, 1998

The Kennecott Mining Company began activity on the Ruby-Violet claims in 1994, and processed over 7,000 tons of material in a single year before selling their entire interest to Gemstone Mining, Incorporated (GMI).

The preceding entries marked in Blue were financed through corporate research and never made available to the public. A copy of these files has been purchased and archived for posterity.

Ministry of Energy and Mines. Core Review of Gems and Semi-Precious Stones, British Columbia, Canada - 1998

Weldon, Robert. The Case for Red Emerald, Professional Jeweler - June 1999

Genis, Robert. Red Emerald or Red Beryl? The Gemstone Forecaster - Fall 2000

Ege, Carl. What Gemstone is Found in Utah that is Rarer than Diamond and More Valuable than Gold? Utah Geological Survey, Survey Notes Volume 34, Number 2 - September 2002

GMI oversaw the first organized effort increase consumer awareness of the Red Emerald, focusing their efforts on educating dealers. Marketers spread information throughout the industry until 2001, when the company's high-risk financing schemes failed and the organization declared bankruptcy without selling any product.

Thompson, Timothy. A Model for the Origin of Red Beryl in Topaz Rhyolite, Wah-Wah Mountains, Utah, USA, Brigham Young University - August 2002

Gems & Gemology - Winter 2003 - Red Beryl from Utah by James Shigley, et al

Shigley, James, Thompson, Timothy & Keith, Jeffrey. Red Beryl From Utah: A Review and Update, Gems & Gemology - Winter 2003

Two comprehensive reports on this mineral variety were published using a portion of the information remaining from corporate projects.

Jones, Bob. The Yin-Yang of Beryl, Rock & Gem Magazine - November 2004

Oberbeck, Steven. Emeralds See Red, The Salt Lake Tribune - November 7, 2004

Red Beryl: Rarest Gemstone in the World, National Jeweler's Association - 2006

Neutkens, Harjo. Beryl var: Red Beryl, Mindat Online Mineral Database - December 9, 2009

Even in the absence of marketing and promotion of the gem, continued comparisons were made with the green. As consumer awareness began to trickle down from experts in the trade, many began to recognize this variety for what it truly is -- a rare color variant of the Emerald.

The Colored Gemstone Buying Guide by Antoinette Matlins

Matlins, Antoinette (PG). The Colored Gemstone Buying Guide, GemStone Press, 4th Edition- July 8, 2016

I learned of the Red Emerald on 2 June 2013 and began reading every article I could. Antoinette Matlins is the most-published gemstone consumer advocate in the world. She was a Professional Gemologist who provided gemological justifications supporting use of the Red Emerald name.

An overwhelming number of additional expert advocates also exist.

Rock & Gem Magazine May 2017 - Is It Really Red Emerald? by Bob Jones

Jones, Bob. Is Red Beryl Really Red Emerald? Rock & Gem, pp. 10-13 - May 2017

Gemmology Today - May 2017 - Red Emerald or Red Beryl by Antoinette Matlins

Matlins, Antoinette (PG). Red Emerald or Red Beryl, Gemmology Today, pp. 80-88 - May 2017

Identifying Similarities in the Crystal Structures of Green and Red Emeralds by Seth William Rozendaal

Rozendaal, Seth. Identifying Similarities in the Crystal Structures of Green and Red Emeralds, Gemmology Today, pp. 88 - May 2017


These last entries mark our first contributions to this world of information, and we will continue to show the world everything the Red Emerald has to offer!

Although 100 years of Red Emerald history is all we have so far, never fear, for I assure you: this is only the beginning!

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